R-410A vs. R-22: Common Refrigerants in Aircon Units

Air conditioners keep our homes cool and comfy. They use special liquids called refrigerants to work. Two common refrigerants are R-22 and R-410A. These chemicals help carry heat out of our houses.

In the past, aircon units mainly used R-22, also known as Freon. But this substance was not good for the ozone layer in the sky that protects us from harmful sun rays.

Now we have a better refrigerant called R-410A or Puron. Since 2015, it’s become the new standard for aircons in places like America because it’s safer for our planet. Air conditioners made just for R-410A run better and don’t break down as often because they’re good at moving heat around.

Making new aircon units with R-22 is not allowed after January 2020 in America to help care for Earth’s air blanket—the ozone layer! Even before that date, since 2010, companies started making fewer things with R-22 so more people would use Puron instead.

This change means finding new ways to stay fresh without hurting nature too much! Keep reading to learn all about these cooling helpers!

Understanding R-22 and R-410A Refrigerants

Moving on from the introduction, let’s delve into R-22 and R-410A refrigerants. R-22, commonly known as Freon, was once widely used in air conditioning units. However, because it is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), it can harm the ozone layer.

This led to its phase-out for new HVAC systems after 2010.

In contrast, R-410A – also referred to as Puron – does not damage the ozone layer since it’s a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC). This makes it more environmentally friendly. Air conditioners now favour this refrigerant for its efficiency and reliability.

Not only is Puron better for the planet, but it also improves heat absorption and release in heating and cooling systems. These features help air conditioners run at a cooler temperature and prevent overheating that could lead to compressor burnout.

Keep in mind though that due to its high-pressure operation, R-410A requires specifically designed compressors that can handle increased stress without cracking or failure.

Comparing R-22 vs. R-410A: Performance and Efficiency

When evaluating the performance and efficiency of R-22 and R-410A refrigerants in air conditioning systems, distinct differences emerge. Below is a summary presented in an HTML table format:

Heat AbsorptionLess efficient at absorbing heatBetter at absorbing and releasing heat, enhances performance
Compressor OperationHigher risk of overheating and burnoutRuns cooler, reducing risk of compressor burnout
Operating PressureFunctions at a lower pressureOperates at a higher pressure, requires robust compressors
Lubricant CompatibilityUses mineral oilUtilises synthetic oil, more soluble with refrigerant for increased efficiency
Environmental ImpactContributes to ozone depletionDoes not deplete the ozone layer
Energy EfficiencyLower energy efficiencyHigher energy efficiency, leads to reduced energy costs
AvailabilityPhased out, limited supply and higher costsWidely available and adopted as standard

R-410A surpasses R-22 in heat absorption capabilities, which is crucial for effective cooling. This refrigerant ensures that air conditioning systems function optimally by releasing more heat, leading to enhanced performance. The compressor in an R-410A system experiences less strain due to cooler running temperatures. This feature significantly reduces the probability of overheating and compressor burnout, a common issue with R-22.

R-410A operates under higher pressure, necessitating the need for sturdier compressors built to handle increased stress. This avoids the potential for cracking that might occur with lower pressure systems. In terms of lubricants, R-410A systems benefit from the use of synthetic oil, which boasts improved solubility with the refrigerant compared to mineral oil. This compatibility contributes to greater system efficiency and less wear on the compressor.

From an environmental perspective, R-22 loses ground due to its ozone depletion potential. Meanwhile, R-410A offers an eco-friendlier alternative as it does not contribute to the degradation of the ozone layer. In terms of energy efficiency, systems using R-410A are more efficient, which translates into lower energy bills for consumers. Lastly, R-22’s phase-out means dwindling supplies and higher costs, while R-410A is readily available and has been embraced as the new standard in air conditioning refrigerants.

The Environmental Impact: R-22 vs. R-410A

R-22 refrigerant is known for its role in harming the ozone layer. This substance, a HCFC, contributes to ozone layer depletion when it escapes into the atmosphere. Such damage can increase UV radiation reaching Earth, leading to skin cancer and other environmental issues.

The Montreal Protocol recognises these dangers and has set plans to phase out HCFCs like R-22.

In contrast, R-410A is kinder to the ozone layer because it’s an HFC and does not cause ozone depletion. However, both R-22 and R-410A contribute to global warming when released into the air.

While neither is perfect for the environment, R-410A has a lower impact on climate change than older HCFCs such as R-22; this makes it a better choice for new aircon units. It’s important we consider these impacts when choosing refrigerants for HVAC systems.

The Transition from R-22 to R-410A

The need for climate protection has driven the shift away from R-22 due to its ozone damage. We are now seeing a move towards R-410A, an environmentally friendlier option.

  • The HVAC industry began replacing R-22 with R-410A because of the latter’s lower global warming potential and lack of ozone-depleting chemicals.
  • In 2010, manufacturers stopped using R – 22 in new air conditioning systems, marking the start of a significant changeover.
  • Residential air conditioning systems adopted R-410A as the new standard by 2015 to meet energy-efficient goals.
  • Systems designed for R – 410A are built to handle high pressure, making them more robust and less prone to breakdowns.
  • Unlike R-22 systems, those running on R-410A can release and absorb more heat. This means air conditioners work better and compressors last longer.
  • For existing units initially designed for R-22, special modifications are needed to make them compatible with R-410A refrigerant.

Can R-22 Systems be Retrofitted with R-410A?

Retrofitting an R-22 system with R-410A is not straightforward. R-410A operates at a higher pressure than its predecessor, meaning that the entire air conditioning unit would need significant changes to handle the new refrigerant.

Components such as compressors, expansion devices, and sometimes even copper lines must be replaced to cope with the increased stress. It’s more than just a simple switch; it involves a major overhaul of the existing system.

Many experts advise against retrofitting because it can be costly and often less efficient than installing a new unit designed for R-410A. Newer systems are built for this refrigerant and are more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly.

Upgrading to a modern heat pump or aircon unit ensures compatibility with R-410A, providing better performance and reliability in the long run.

Troubleshooting Solutions for Common Issues with R-22 and R-410A Systems

After exploring the possibility of retrofitting R-22 systems with R-410A, let’s look at how to solve some common problems these refrigerants might cause. Here’s a guide to troubleshooting issues with R-22 and R-410A air conditioning units.

  1. Low Refrigerant Levels:
  • Check for leaks using a soap solution on all the connections.
  • Repair any leaks found and recharge the system with the correct refrigerant.
  1. Poor Cooling Performance:
  • Clean or replace dirty air filters to ensure proper airflow.
  • Examine the evaporator coil for ice buildup and defrost if needed.
  1. Strange Noises from Compressor:
  • Tighten any loose parts that could be vibrating against each other.
  • Inspect compressor mounts for wear and replace them if necessary.
  1. High Energy Bills:
  • Seal ductwork leaks to prevent loss of cool air and wasted energy.
  • Schedule regular maintenance checks to keep the system running efficiently.
  1. System Not Turning On:
  • Verify that the thermostat is set correctly and working.
  • Check electrical connections, including fuses and circuit breakers.
  1. Inadequate Maintenance:
  • Schedule professional maintenance annually to avoid bigger problems.
  • Replace worn – out components as recommended by your service technician.
  1. Overheating Compressor:
  • Ensure proper clearance around outdoor units for optimal airflow.
  • Use synthetic oil compatible with R – 410A systems to reduce compressor strain.
  1. Pressure Buildup in System:
  • Install a pressure gauge to monitor levels within safe operating ranges.
  • Adjust or replace faulty expansion valves to maintain pressure balance.


Air conditioning systems have seen a major shift with the move from R-22 to R-410A. This change helps protect our environment and makes cooling units more energy efficient. With better performance and lower environmental risks, R-410A stands out as the future for aircon units.

It’s clear that embracing this newer technology brings benefits both at home and globally. As we wave goodbye to R-22, the focus on sustainability and efficiency comes into sharper view with R-410A leading the way.


1. What’s the difference between R-410A and R-22 refrigerants?

R-410A is an energy-efficient refrigerant that doesn’t harm the ozone layer, whilst R-22 is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) with substances that can deplete the ozone.

2. Why should I consider using an aircon unit with R-410A?

Aircon units with R-410A are better for the environment because they don’t contain ozone-depleting chemicals, like those found in older units using R-22.

3. Can I replace my old aircon’s R-22 with R-410A?

No, you cannot directly replace R-22 with R-410A because they operate at different pressure levels and require specific parts that might not be compatible.

4. Will my energy bills change if I switch to an air conditioner using r410a refrigerant?

Switching to an air conditioner using r410a may lower your energy bills since it operates more efficiently due to its higher boiling point which enhances cooling performance.

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